[119], There are substantial differences in wheat farming, trading, policy, sector growth, and wheat uses in different regions of the world. However, farming systems rely on much more than fertilizer and breeding to improve productivity. Wheat is the dominant crop in temperate countries being used for human food and livestock feed. Chem/IUPAC Name: Protein hydrolyzates, wheat germ. If the raw wheat is broken into parts at the mill, as is usually done, the outer husk or bran can be used several ways Preferred Scientific Name. flowering. [117], In the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent, as well as North China, irrigation has been a major contributor to increased grain output. [28] The first identifiable bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) with sufficient gluten for yeasted breads has been identified using DNA analysis in samples from a granary dating to approximately 1350 BCE at Assiros in Macedonia. Several factors are currently slowing the rate of global expansion of wheat production: population growth rates are falling while wheat yields continue to rise. World trade in wheat is greater than for all other crops combined. Technological advances in soil preparation and seed placement at planting time, use of crop rotation and fertilizers to improve plant growth, and advances in harvesting methods have all combined to promote wheat as a viable crop. compactum). [102][104][105] These TLR4-stimulating activities of ATIs are limited to gluten-containing cereals. "[79][97], In genetically susceptible people, gluten – a major part of wheat protein – can trigger coeliac disease. [93] Further, wheat is a major source for natural and biofortified nutrient supplementation, including dietary fiber, protein and dietary minerals. [98], While coeliac disease is caused by a reaction to wheat proteins, it is not the same as a wheat allergy. "International trade in wheat and other cereals and the collapse of the first wave of globalization, 1900–38.". Z raw plantains The varieties of wheat created through these methods are in the hundreds (going as far back as 1960), more of them being created in higher populated countries such as China. The Land Institute is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization based in Salina, Kansas, that was founded in 1976. The combine loads the threshed wheat onto a trailer while moving. [83][84] The origins of formal wheat breeding lie in the nineteenth century, when single line varieties were created through selection of seed from a single plant noted to have desired properties. Wheat is 13% water, 71% carbohydrates, and 1.5% fat. [2][3][4] The many species of wheat together make up the genus Triticum; the most widely grown is common wheat (T. aestivum). All other factors being equal, higher-protein wheat has higher water-absorbing capacity and greater loaf volume potential and is reported to have better keeping quality. Gom Wheat Triticum aestivum Poaceae (Gramineae) 3. With a range of quality characteristics within these classes, customers can produce and use flours made from U.S. wheat for almost every possible end product. Short stems are important because the application of high levels of chemical fertilizers would otherwise cause the stems to grow too high, resulting in lodging (collapse of the stems). They also concluded that the settlers of Tell Aswad did not develop this form of emmer themselves, but brought the domesticated grains with them from an as yet unidentified location elsewhere. Around 10,000 years ago, wild einkorn and emmer wheat were domesticated as part of the origins of agriculture in the fertile crescent. [68], Einkorn wheat (T. monococcum) is diploid (AA, two complements of seven chromosomes, 2n=14).[4]. [110] A USDA report revealed that in 1998, average operating costs were $1.43 per bushel and total costs were $3.97 per bushel. ", "Gliadin Peptides as Triggers of the Proliferative and Stress/Innate Immune Response of the Celiac Small Intestinal Mucosa", "Wheat amylase trypsin inhibitors drive intestinal inflammation via activation of toll-like receptor 4", "USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference", "Tables for Weights and Measurement: Crops", "Commodities: Latest Wheat Price & Chart", "Wheat production in 2017 from pick lists: Crops/World regions/Production quantity", "Rising temperatures reduce global wheat production", "Economic Analysis of Post-harvest Losses in Food Grains in India: A Case Study of Karnataka", "Stocktake on cropping and crop science for a diverse planet", "Umbers, Alan (2006, Grains Council of Australia Limited) Grains Industry trends in Production – Results from Today's Farming Practices", "Crops and livestock products/World List/Wheat/Export Quantity/2016 (pick list)", List of Commodity Delivery Dates on Wikinvest, Crop Disease Management Bulletin 631-98. The scientific name for wheat is Triticum aestivum. The new technology is so precise that it can detect 5–10 infested seeds out of 300,000 good ones. This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. Cultivation and repeated harvesting and sowing of the grains of wild grasses led to the creation of domestic strains, as mutant forms ('sports') of wheat were preferentially chosen by farmers. Free-threshing wheat is closely related to spelt. Stem heights are also even, which is important for modern harvesting techniques. Recent post-harvest losses in cereals amount to billions of dollars per year in the United States alone, and damage to wheat by various borers, beetles and weevils is no exception. Wheat bran has 12%−19% proteins. Depending on variety, wheat may be awned or not awned. Shot wheat, Triticum aestivum subsp. Thousands of new, high-quality pictures added every day. With the exception of Iraq ed-Dubb, the earliest carbon-14 dated remains of domesticated emmer wheat were found in the earliest levels of Tell Aswad, in the Damascus basin, near Mount Hermon in Syria. [62], In 2010, a team of UK scientists funded by BBSRC announced they had decoded the wheat genome for the first time (95% of the genome of a variety of wheat known as Chinese Spring line 42). Hard red spring wheat flour is named for its berries, which are closely related to hard red winter wheat. II – Improving the Protein Content and Quality of Temperate Cereals: Wheat, Barley and Rye", Encyclopedia Life Support Systems (UNESCO-EOLSS), "The role of high lysine cereals in animal and human nutrition in Asia", "National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Release 28", "Nutrition facts, calories in food, labels, nutritional information and analysis", "USDA Table of Nutrient Retention Factors, Release 6", USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, "Whole Grain Resource for the National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs: A Guide to Meeting the Whole Grain-Rich criteria", "Nutritionally enhanced food crops; progress and perspectives", "Health Claim Notification for Whole Grain Foods", "Guidance for Industry: A Food Labeling Guide (11. At the protein level, we found no evidence to support an increased immunostimulatory potential of modern winter wheat. The main purpose of having a scientific name is to have a same name accepted and used worldwide. High protein content is desirable for pasta with superior cooking quality. [124] A wide range of organisms infect wheat, of which the most important are viruses and fungi.[125]. speltoides. Its 13% protein content is mostly gluten (75-80% of the protein in wheat). If a technical scientific name were needed it would be “dihydrogen monoxide” according to the rules for naming inorganic compounds. [129] Tracking insect infestations in stored grain is critical for food safety as well as for the marketing value of the crop. Genus is a group of plants which are related to each other in some or the other way. If an exporter or registered establishment is preparing or exporting wheat or barley to China for the first time then contact must be made with the Grain and Seed Export Program grain.export@agriculture.gov.au so that the name and location of your business can be provided to GACC as agreed under the protocol. (2002), Bridgwater, W. & Beatrice Aldrich. In recent years, low international wheat prices have often encouraged farmers in the United States to change to more profitable crops. [citation needed]. Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food. Dated archeological remains of einkorn wheat in settlement sites near this region, including those at Abu Hureyra in Syria, suggest the domestication of einkorn near the Karacadag Mountain Range. The major diseases in temperate environments include the following, arranged in a rough order of their significance from cooler to warmer climates: eyespot, Stagonospora nodorum blotch (also known as glume blotch), yellow or stripe rust, powdery mildew, Septoria tritici blotch (sometimes known as leaf blotch), brown or leaf rust, Fusarium head blight, tan spot and stem rust. Each scale is a standard system which describes successive stages reached by the crop during the agricultural season. They appear square in cross-section. Although landraces of wheat are no longer grown in Europe and North America, they continue to be important elsewhere. [17] Selection for these traits by farmers might not have been deliberately intended, but simply have occurred because these traits made gathering the seeds easier; nevertheless such 'incidental' selection was an important part of crop domestication. Better seed storage and germination ability (and hence a smaller requirement to retain harvested crop for next year's seed) is another 20th-century technological innovation. Two tractors deploying a sealed storage method for newly harvested wheat. [13][14] When eaten as the whole grain, wheat is a source of multiple nutrients and dietary fiber. wheat curl mite; Other Scientific Names. These names are important because they allow people throughout the world to communicate unambiguously about animal species. Triticum cereale Schrank (1789) Triticum sativum Lamk (1779) Triticum vulgare Vill. [111], Average wheat yields, measured in tonnes per hectare in 2014. Hexaploid wheats evolved in farmers' fields. These varieties can improve crop productivity in rain-fed dry-land wheat farms. Worldwide, bread wheat has proved well adapted to modern industrial baking, and has displaced many of the other wheat, barley, and rye species that were once commonly used for bread making, particularly in Europe. Modern wheat breeding developed in the first years of the twentieth century and was closely linked to the development of Mendelian genetics. [101][102][103], Other proteins present in wheat called amylase-trypsin inhibitors (ATIs) have been identified as the possible activator of the innate immune system in coeliac disease and non-coeliac gluten sensitivity. [1][2][3][4][5] About 95% of wheat produced worldwide is common wheat;[6] it is the most widely grown of all crops and the cereal with the highest monetary yield.[7]. Hybrid wheat has been a limited commercial success in Europe (particularly France), the United States and South Africa. [16] In wild strains, a more fragile rachis allows the ear to easily shatter and disperse the spikelets. [123] Plant breeding to develop new disease-resistant varieties, and sound crop management practices are important for preventing disease. [66], There are around 30,000 wheat varieties of 14 species grown throughout the world. Scientific name is the name conforming to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN). The six classes of wheat grown in the United States are designated by color, hardness and their growing season. The yellowish color of durum wheat and, Seed-borne diseases: these include seed-borne scab, seed-borne, Aparicio, Gema, and Vicente Pinilla. [67], Apart from mutant versions of genes selected in antiquity during domestication, there has been more recent deliberate selection of alleles that affect growth characteristics. Within a species, wheat cultivars are further classified by wheat breeders and farmers in terms of: The named classes of wheat in English are more or less the same in Canada as in the US, as broadly the same commercial cash crop strains can be found in both. This system is called "binomial nomenclature." In temperate countries the flag leaf, along with the second and third highest leaf on the plant, supply the majority of carbohydrate in the grain and their condition is paramount to yield formation. "Grain for Rome", in Garnsey P., Hopkin K., Whittaker C. R. (editors), This page was last edited on 29 November 2020, at 06:09. Every recognized species on earth (at least in theory) is given a two-part scientific name. C. Botanical Description Wheat is a tall, annual plant with a height ranging from two to six feet in early varieties. sphacrococcum (Perc.) [49][50], Wild grasses in the genus Triticum and related genera, and grasses such as rye have been a source of many disease-resistance traits for cultivated wheat breeding since the 1930s. Common wheat (Triticum aestivum), also known as bread wheat, is a cultivated wheat species. Annual agricultural production of wheat, measured in tonnes in 2014. A good illustration of this is Australian wheat growing in the southern winter cropping zone, where, despite low rainfall (300 mm), wheat cropping is successful even with relatively little use of nitrogenous fertilizer. [88], The most common forms of wheat are white and red wheat. [37], Wheat roots are among the deepest of arable crops, extending as far down as 2m. C raw hard red winter wheat Wheat (species of Triticum) is a cereal grain.People eat it most often in the form of bread.It is a kind of grass whose fruit is a "head of wheat" with edible seeds.It was first grown in the Levant, a region of the Near East.Now it is cultivated worldwide. [118] In these low rainfall areas, better use of available soil-water (and better control of soil erosion) is achieved by retaining the stubble after harvesting and by minimizing tillage. Preferred Scientific Name. [7][9], The average annual world farm yield for wheat in 2014 was 3.3 tonnes per hectare (330 grams per square meter). Wheat, any of several species of cereal grasses of the genus Triticum and their edible grains. The name of a wheat species from one information source may not be the name of a wheat species in another. Wheat has also been the subject of mutation breeding, with the use of gamma, x-rays, ultraviolet light, and sometimes harsh chemicals. Several B vitamins and other dietary minerals are in significant content. Q = Quality of Protein in terms of completeness without adjusting for digestability. B raw unenriched long-grain white rice The following doses have been studied in scientific research: BY MOUTH: For constipation: 20 to 25 grams of wheat bran per day. The last two sets of chromosomes came from wild goat-grass Aegilops tauschii 230,000–430,000 years ago. The vast majority of Canadian wheat is produced in western Canada (Manitoba and provinces to the west). Hulled wheats are often stored as spikelets because the toughened glumes give good protection against pests of stored grain. Wheat is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera (butterfly and moth) species including the flame, rustic shoulder-knot, setaceous Hebrew character and turnip moth. Genes for the 'dwarfing' trait, first used by Japanese wheat breeders to produce short-stalked wheat, have had a huge effect on wheat yields worldwide, and were major factors in the success of the Green Revolution in Mexico and Asia, an initiative led by Norman Borlaug. Scientific Name and Common Name; Kingdom: Plantae – Plants Subkingdom: Tracheobionta – Vascular plants Superdivision: Spermatophyta – Seed plants … [103][102] ATIs are part of the plant's natural defense against insects and may cause toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated intestinal inflammation in humans. Internationally, it is the most vital grain and comes in second in over all production as a cereal crop, just after maize and closely followed by rice. There are many wheat diseases, mainly caused by fungi, bacteria, and viruses. Common wheat was first domesticated in Western Asia during the early Holocene, and spread from there to North Africa, Europe and East Asia in the prehistoric period. Often marketed […] By 1997, 81% of the developing world's wheat area was planted to semi-dwarf wheats, giving both increased yields and better response to nitrogenous fertilizer. Appendix C: Health Claims)", "Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to whole grain (ID 831, 832, 833, 1126, 1268, 1269, 1270, 1271, 1431) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006", "Definition and Facts for Celiac Disease", "Nonceliac Wheat Sensitivity: An Immune-Mediated Condition with Systemic Manifestations", "Nonceliac Gluten Sensitivity: What Is the Culprit? The result is that when threshed, the wheat ear breaks up into spikelets. The wheat has turned a golden yellow colour indicating that it is ready for harvest. [82] Supplementation with proteins from other food sources (mainly legumes) is commonly used to compensate for this deficiency,[13] since the limitation of a single essential amino acid causes the others to break down and become excreted, which is especially important during the period of growth. As with spelt, genes contributed from Aegilops tauschii give bread wheat greater cold hardiness than most wheats, and it is cultivated throughout the world's temperate regions. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the second most important cereal cultivated worldwide with 740 million tons produced in 2016 (FAOSTAT, 2016a). "Overall, the harvest year had a more significant effect on protein composition than the cultivar. "[61], Stomata (or leaf pores) are involved in both uptake of carbon dioxide gas from the atmosphere and water vapor losses from the leaf due to water transpiration. [116] In addition, the better economic profitability of other crops such as soybeans and maize, linked with investment in modern genetic technologies, has promoted shifts to other crops. In Canada different varieties are blended prior to sale. Triticum aestivum L. (1753) Preferred Common Name. Larvae curl up [60] However, a 2020 study that grew and analyzed 60 wheat cultivars from between 1891 and 2010 found no changes in albumin/globulin and gluten contents over time. [47], International wheat breeding is led by CIMMYT in Mexico. Wheat is grown on more land area than any other food crop (220.4 million hectares, 2014). The device uses electrical signals to detect the insects as the wheat is being milled. Biological Control News Volume II, Number 10 October 1995, CSIRO Rodent Management Research Focus: Mice plagues, "ARS, Industry Cooperation Yields Device to Detect Insects in Stored Wheat", Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wheat&oldid=991277241, Articles with dead external links from May 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2020, Articles needing additional references from October 2016, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2017, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from May 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2018, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from Citizendium, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Grain color (red, white or amber). [18][19] Genetic analysis of wild einkorn wheat suggests that it was first grown in the Karacadag Mountains in southeastern Turkey. [65] The implications of the research in cereal genetics and breeding includes the examination of genome variation, analysis of population genetics and evolutionary biology, and further studying epigenetic modifications. No. In 2014, the most productive crop yields for wheat were in Ireland, producing 10 tonnes per hectare. GACC registered exporters and establishments are published on … There is evidence, however, that rising temperatures associated with climate change are reducing wheat yield in several locations. [45] Commercial hybrid wheat seed has been produced using chemical hybridizing agents, plant growth regulators that selectively interfere with pollen development, or naturally occurring cytoplasmic male sterility systems. This article incorporates material from the Citizendium article "Wheat", which is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License but not under the GFDL. [7][8] Since 1960, world production of wheat and other grain crops has tripled and is expected to grow further through the middle of the 21st century. "Identity preserved" wheat that has been stored and transported separately (at extra cost) usually fetches a higher price. Wheat normally needs between 110 and 130 days between sowing and harvest, depending upon climate, seed type, and soil conditions (winter wheat lies dormant during a winter freeze). Most tetraploid wheats (e.g. The scientific name for wheat is Triticum aestivum. Some wheat species are diploid, with two sets of chromosomes, but many are stable polyploids, with four sets of chromosomes (tetraploid) or six (hexaploid). [8], Wheat futures are traded on the Chicago Board of Trade, Kansas City Board of Trade, and Minneapolis Grain Exchange, and have delivery dates in March (H), May (K), July (N), September (U), and December (Z).[121]. Cooking reduction = % Maximum typical reduction in nutrients due to boiling without draining for ovo-lacto-vegetables group[85][86] Wheat basically is a grass which is cultivated all across the globe. [10] Globally, it is the leading source of vegetable protein in human food, having a protein content of about 13%, which is relatively high compared to other major cereals[12] but relatively low in protein quality for supplying essential amino acids. Botanically, the wheat kernel is a type of fruit called a caryopsis. [120] The largest importers of wheat in 2016 were, in order of imported quantities: Indonesia (10.5 million tonnes), Egypt (8.7 million tonnes), Algeria (8.2 million tonnes), Italy (7.7 million tonnes) and Spain (7.0 million tonnes). Young wheat crop in a field near Solapur, Maharashtra, India, A combine harvester threshes the wheat, crushes the chaff, then blows chaff across the field. Y raw yam [14][80] Though they contain adequate amounts of the other essential amino acids, at least for adults, wheat proteins are deficient in the essential amino acid, lysine. [21], Remains of harvested emmer from several sites near the Karacadag Range have been dated to between 8600 (at Cayonu) and 8400 BCE (Abu Hureyra), that is, in the Neolithic period. [63] This genome was released in a basic format for scientists and plant breeders to use but was not a fully annotated sequence which was reported in some of the media. Kaon Foxtail millet Setaria italica Poaceae (Gramineae) 6. Basic physiological investigation of these gas exchange processes has yielded valuable carbon isotope based methods that are used for breeding wheat varieties with improved water-use efficiency. This more primitive morphology (in evolutionary terms) consists of toughened glumes that tightly enclose the grains, and (in domesticated wheats) a semi-brittle rachis that breaks easily on threshing. Compact wheats are often regarded as subspecies rather than species in their own right (thus T. aestivum subsp. Modern wheat varieties have been selected for short stems, the result of RHt dwarfing genes[13] After 1955 however, there was a ten-fold increase in the rate of wheat yield improvement per year, and this became the major factor allowing global wheat production to increase. [69] The hybridization that formed wild emmer (AABB) occurred in the wild, long before domestication,[68] and was driven by natural selection. wheat; Other Scientific Names. [32] The last leaf produced by a wheat plant is known as the flag leaf. For the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome : 30 grams of wheat … Sl. [95][96] The scientific opinion of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) related to health claims on gut health/bowel function, weight control, blood glucose/insulin levels, weight management, blood cholesterol, satiety, glycaemic index, digestive function and cardiovascular health is "that the food constituent, whole grain, (...) is not sufficiently characterised in relation to the claimed health effects" and "that a cause and effect relationship cannot be established between the consumption of whole grain and the claimed effects considered in this opinion. The earliest archaeological evidence for wheat cultivation comes from the Levant and Turkey. [8] Ireland wheat farms were the most productive in 2014, with a nationwide average of 10.0 tonnes per hectare, followed by the Netherlands (9.2), and Germany, New Zealand and the United Kingdom (each with 8.6). A raw yellow dent corn Estimates of the amount of wheat production lost owing to plant diseases vary between 10–25% in Missouri. 207–21, "AFLP analysis of a collection of tetraploid wheats indicates the origin of emmer and hard wheat domestication in southeast Turkey", "Britons may have imported wheat long before farming it", "Ancient genomes indicate population replacement in Early Neolithic Britain", "Ancient DNA from 8400 Year-Old Çatalhöyük Wheat: Implications for the Origin of Neolithic Agricultur", "The science in detail – Wheats DNA – Research – Archaeology – The University of Sheffield", Fertilising for High Yield and Quality - Cereals, "Shifts in stomatal traits following the domestication of plant species", "Labeling of Fructans in Winter Wheat Stems", "Wheat genotypic variation in dynamic fluxes of WSC components in different stem segments under drought during grain filling", "Awns reduce grain number to increase grain size and harvestable yield in irrigated and rainfed spring wheat", "Decline in climate resilience of European wheat", Guinness World Records - Highest Wheat Yield, Farmers Weekly - Lincs grower scoops top wheat and rapeseed yield awards, Agricultural and Horticultural Development Board - 2018 GB Harvest Progress Results, "Plant genetic resources: What can they contribute toward increased crop productivity? Raw forms of these staples, however, are not edible and cannot be digested. [86], 100 g (3.5 oz) of hard red winter wheat contain about 12.6 g (0.44 oz) of protein, 1.5 g (0.053 oz) of total fat, 71 g (2.5 oz) of carbohydrate (by difference), 12.2 g (0.43 oz) of dietary fiber, and 3.2 mg (0.00011 oz) of iron (17% of the daily requirement); the same weight of hard red spring wheat contains about 15.4 g (0.54 oz) of protein, 1.9 g (0.067 oz) of total fat, 68 g (2.4 oz) of carbohydrate (by difference), 12.2 g (0.43 oz) of dietary fiber, and 3.6 mg (0.00013 oz) of iron (20% of the daily requirement). It is a kind of grass. In cooked form, the nutrition value for each staple depends on the cooking method (for example: baking, boiling, steaming, frying, etc.). The Land Institute. [99][98] Other diseases triggered by eating wheat are non-coeliac gluten sensitivity[99][15] (estimated to affect 0.5% to 13% of the general population[100]), gluten ataxia, and dermatitis herpetiformis. Bread Wheat Genus and Other Classification. It is used to make bread, pasta, cake, crackers, cookies, pastries, flour, and many other foodstuffs.