Stigma: The place at the apex end of the style, where the pollen that’s deposited enters the pistil is known as stigma. Megasporocyte: Diploid cells undergoing meiosis to form megaspores. Nucleus: Largest cell organelle found in most eukaryotic cells. Leaflet: Subdivisions of the leaf lamina; as seen in compound leaves. 2. Chaffy scales on the stipe of many ferns. Bacillus: Rod shaped, spore-producing bacteria belonging to the genus Bacillus. Natural Selection: The process of evolution involving the population rise of organisms which have inherited the traits that enable them to successfully survive in natural conditions and reproduce successfully in comparison to others. Hymenium: Layer of fertile cells producing spores in a fungus fruiting body. Auxin: Growth regulating substance involved in apical dominance, cell elongation, rooting, etc. Naked DNA: Gene transfer processes such as transformation and transfection involves the passage of nucleosome and histone free DNA. Microsporocyte: Diploid cells which on completion of meiosis produce microspores. HO-96 . Development: Changes pertaining to the growth and differentiation of plant cells into various tissues and organs. Jackson, Benjamin, Daydon; A Glossary of Botanic Terms with their Derivation and Accent; Published by Gerald Duckworth & Co. London, 4th ed 1928. Bacteriophage: It is an obligate intracellular parasite that breed inside bacteria by using the host’s cellular machinery. Cilium: Precisely arranged, short microtubules found mostly in bunches, similar to a flagellum. Presented in this way, the subject is not only easier to understand and to learn but is also very much more interesting. Lateral Roots: The scores of tiny roots stemming from the tap root. color blindness. Botany has formed the basis on which, the study of plants and consequently, living organisms was done. Biotechnology: Use of living organisms, tissue or cells for the manufacture of drugs or products intended for human benefit. Zygote: Diploid cell conduced by the fusion of two gametes. While Professor of Botany, Henslow established the Cambridge University Botanic Before going into types of fruits, it may be important to understand some basic fruit anatomy. an assemblage of two or more cultivars within a species or hybrid; plants derived from a hybrid in which one or more of the parent species is not known or is of uncertain origin; a range of cultivated plants of a species or hybrid which may exhibit variation but share one or more characters, which makes it worth distinguishing them as a unit. Cell Wall: The rigid boundary forming the outer structure of plant cells. Cuticle: Thin hyaline film derived from the exterior surfaces of epidermal cells, covering the surface of plants. Genetic Engineering: Introduction of genes from one DNA form into another, by artificial means is called genetic engineering. Ground Meristem: The mersitem producing all the primary tissues of the plant except the epidermis and the stele. Lenticel: Spongy cluster of cells located in the bark of woody plants, which allow gas exchange between the external atmosphere and interior of a plant. This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. Spell. Additional Physical Format: Online version: Emerson, Fred Wilbert, 1886-Basic botany. Avoid these deadly wild plants. Found in flowers of most plants. Habitat: The natural environment in which the plant completes its life cycle. 7 Accesses. Sclerenchyma: Sclerenchyma is a supportive tissue, found in plants, which is typically composed of hard, thick and dry cells. Sessile: The term sessile, meaning without a stalk, is most often used in context of plants whose flowers or leaves grow directly from the stem. Mosses, liverworts, etc are bryophytes. Thank You Nuclear Envelope: The porous double lipid bilayer sheathing the nucleus. Nucleotides comprise a sugar, nitrogenous base and phosphate group. Yeasts: Unicellular ascomycetes which lack mycelium. The pericarp cleaves to the seed coat; typically seen in grains. Plasmodium: Body of slime mold, which is a large mass of living substance with hundreds or thousands of karyons. Learn about the different types of biology degrees, schools, and jobs available for Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Biotechnology, Botany, Ecology & Environmental Studies, Forensic Biology, Marine Biology, Microbiology, Physiology, Zoology and Wildlife Biology, and more. Seed Coat: Seed coat, also referred to as testa, is the protective outer covering of seeds of various flowering plants. If you are relatively new to working in wetland plant identification, this class will get you up to speed in just a few weeks. This course presents the fundamental information about plants with an emphasis on relating form to function as well as the origins of plants and their life processes. Collenchyma:Cells containing primary walls thickened at the cells corners, but thin elsewhere. Aggregate Fruit:The conjunction of several small, individual fruits, formed by different ovaries, located within the same flower to form a single fruit like that of raspberry. Fission: Cell division of bacterial and other related organisms that results into two new cells. It was the plants present in his backyard that inspired Gregor Johann Mendel to propose the first laws of genetic inheritance, that are studied even to this day. Petiole: The lithesome stem which attaches a leaf to the stem. Botany definition, the science of plants; the branch of biology that deals with plant life. nedger. Locus: Position of gene on a chromosome, which is determined by the linear order relative to the various other genes situated on the same chromosome. Dictyosome: Organelle comprising disc-shaped, mostly branching hollow tubes, which accumulate and pack substances required for the synthesis of various materials in the cell. Cohesion-Tension Theory: This theory explains that the upward pull of water takes place by the combination of water molecules cohesion in the vessels and tracheids and tension on the water column caused by transpiration. Before you can harvest wild plants, you've got to learn some background information. General Botany Trivia Test your knowledge and read about plant anatomy, how plants work and the life cycle of flowering plants with a few basic botanical terms. Eukaryotic: Cells comprising nucleus, chromosomes and distinct membrane bound organelles. Angiosperm: Plants with seeds enclosed in ovaries that mature into a fruit. Glycoprotein: Proteins featuring attachment of sugars, which are less than ten sugars long. Simple Cone: A simple cone is a cone featuring only one axis or bearing only sporophylls. Prefixes and suffixes are to be found at the appropriate places within the entries for their first letters Protonema: A threadlike structure created by sprouting of the spores in small leafy-stemmed flowerless plants and other related plants, and from which the leafy plant, that has the sexual organs, develops as a sidelong or terminal branch. Located just behind the tip of the root, this root hair helps absorb water and nutrients from the soil. Endosperm: Nutritive material derived from the embryo sac in seed plant ovules. Food Chain: Natural chain of organisms, in which each organism of the chain feeds on members below it in the chain, and is consumed by organisms above it in the chain. Founder: Individuals who are the first to establish a population in a new environment or habitat. Etiolation: Term referring to a condition involving poor leaf development, long internodes, pale and weak appearance of the plant due to deprivation of sunlight. Thorn: Thorns, also referred to as spines, are the leaves of plants which are modified into cylindrical, hard structures featuring sharp ends. Receptacle: Expanded portion of the peduncle, wherein various parts of the flower are attached. Transposons: The sequences of DNA which can move to different positions within the genome of a single cell through the process of transposition. Cell Sap: Fluid present in the central vacuole of plant cells. Selectively Permeable Membrane: It is a membrane that facilitates the transmission of certain molecules through it by the process of diffusion. Guttation: Exudation of water from the leaves in the form of droplets due to root pressure. Granum: The chloroplasts in vascular plants exhibit the presence of a series of stacked thylakoids, called granum. Legume: Dried fruits comprising seeds adhering to their edges which split along two seams. Zoospore: Motile spore capable of swimming. Tissue Culture: Tissue culture is a process wherein various cells are separated from each other and grown outside the body, on a culture medium. It is formed when the cell nucleus divides multiple times without the actual division of the cell. paleaceous Chaff-like in texture. Plant Physiology: The study of plants, which involves processes such as nutrition, reproduction, and other functions. However, lists like the following indicate where new articles need to be written and are also useful for looking up and comparing large numbers of terms together. Dormancy: The phase of temporary growth cessation in plants, under harsh environmental situations, wherein the regular conditions required for growth cannot be met. It helps us understand why plants are so vitally important to the world. Transcription: A process facilitated by the enzymes to transcribe the information of a DNA strand into a complementary RNA(tRNA) strand is known as transcription. Pollination: This natural process includes the conveyance of pollen from the anther to the stigma. Vacuole: Fluid pocket separated from the cell cytoplasm by a membrane, which mostly occupies about 99% of the cell’s volume, and stores dissolved matter. Compost: Combination of several dead and decaying organic substances, such as manure, dead leaves, etc. September 1999 vol. It classifies plant species on basis of their similarities under a scientific system of taxonomic hierarchy. Also covers those considered historical (not seen in 20 years Aneuploid: Anomaly in the usual chromosome number, wherein one or more chromosomes are missing or present as extras. Cell Division: Process of division of cell with the purpose of growth or reproduction. Floret: Tiny flowers belonging to the inflorescence of members of the grass family or sunflower family. Biomass: Total mass of living matter present in a given habitat, expressed as volume of organisms per unit of habitat’s volume or weight per unit area. Secondary Tissues: Secondary tissues are the tissues of the secondary plant body which are produced by vascular cambium. Suspensor: The suspensor is the cell or filament supporting a gamete, most often observed in a zygospore. Rhizome: Horizontally oriented, underground root-like stem that has nodes and internodes. It comprises prolonged cells underneath and vertical to the upper cuticle, and constituting the principal area of the photosynthesis process. Nucleolus: Spherical structure which is non-membranous and comprises proteins and nucleic acids. Hence, it included a whole range of plant-like organisms such as algae, lichens, ferns, fungi, mosses along with actual plants.But today, we know that fungi and lichens are classified under their own kingdom – Kingdom Fungi. Ray: Series of parenchyma cells that are radially arranged along the vascular region of the xylem and the phloem. Centrioles: Small, cylindrical cell organelles found in animals and some algae and fungi. Uniparental Inheritance: Genetic inheritance obtained from just one parent, and is generally the case for mitochondrial and plastid genes. the evolution of a biological species, which occurs within a limited geographical area is known as sympatric speciation. Haustorium: Organ bearing semblance to a root, which is used by a parasite to penetrate into the host plant to absorb nutrients. These numerous variations, in their phenotypic (outwardly visible) traits as well as their genotype, has made people study this group since centuries, thus, making botany one of the oldest sciences, rivaling astronomy today. Perigynous: This simply means located around the pistil on the edge of a concave receptacle, as stamens or flower petals. Download PDF. Gametophyte: Haploid plant that produces gametes. As teacher, mentor and friend to Charles Darwin, it was his introduction that secured for Darwin the post of naturalist on the voyage of the Beagle. The controversy over stem cell research is mainly centered in the creation and/or destruction of human embryos. Producer: A photosynthetic green plant or chemosynthetic bacterium, that comprises the first trophic level in a food chain. Caryopsis: Small, dry, single seeded fruits which do not split at maturity. Glycocalyx: Mucilaginous secretion surrounding many prokaryotic cell walls. Sclereid: Sclereid is a cell, characterized by the presence of a thick secondary wall and absence of a protoplast. Mitochondrion: Rod shaped organelles present in several eukaryotic cells, that work as powerhouse of the cell, by breaking down oxygen and nutrients and releasing energy in the form of ATP. Apex—The tip of a shoot or root. Match. Cyclosis: Flow of cytoplasm with the cell. This will not only help you to correctly identify plants in the wild, but it will help you when creating a materia medica or teaching an herb walk as well! Take your time. Binary Fission: Process of cell division in prokaryotes, such as yeasts where the cell devides into two daughter cells. Velamen Root: Aerial root capable of preventing water loss due to its multilayered epidermis. Blade: The broad, flattened, conspicuous part of the lead called lamina that is distinguished from the petiole or stalk. Cladophyll: Also called phylloclade, this is a flattened stem that looks like a leaf. Facultative Aerobe (Facultative Anaerobe): Organisms that use oxygen when available, however, can even live without it. Glossary of technical terms used in botany. Start studying Basic terms and concepts in Botany. Junipers: This term refers to members of the Family Cupressaceae, and are characterized needle-like leaves in juviniles and scale-like leaves and cones in the adults. Cell Membrane: The semipermeable membrane sheathing cytoplasmic material of the cell. Gametangium: Cell in which gametes are produced. Microtubule: Single proteinaceous tube like structure situated mostly in the plasma membrane. Differentially Permeable Membrane: Membrane permitting the diffusion of various substances at different rates. Cytogenetics: Study of genetic effects of chromosome behavior and structure. Ralph S. Quatrano 1 Nature volume 284, pages 91 – 92 (1980)Cite this article. The subjects of countless poems and stories the world over flowers have been admired since the dawn of man. Pit: It is concerned with the portion of a sclerenchyma cell, where there is no secondary wall over the primary one, and substances are able to pass into or out of the cell. Its structure resembles a leaf. Lumen: Inner portion of cell structures such as vacuole, vesicle, resin duct or oil chamber. Agamospermy: Asexual reproduction methods involving cells of only the ovule to yield seeds and fruit. Its structure consists of chromatids joined together at the centromere. Chloroplast: Plastids opulent in chlorophyll content that carry out photosynthesis. Prickles: These are sharp protuberances of the cortex and cuticle. Dominance: Phenomenon in which one allele of a gene masks the phenotypic expression of another allele of a gene. Laticifer: Specialized ducts or cells that bear resemblance to vessels. Light-independent Reactions: Cyclic sequence of chemical reactions utilizing carbon dioxide and energy released during the light-dependent reactions. Seen in certain fungi and algae. Its reaction center is P700. Palisade Mesophyll: It is also known as palisade or palisade parenchyma, and is the upper layer of ground tissue in a plant leaf. 2) Are you a keen amateur? meristem in which cell division does not occur. Structural Region: It is the part of the gene, comprising nucleotide triplets, that specifies which amino acids are to be incorporated into protein. Botany is a science of plants that helps us to understand the life of plants including their structure, functions and influencing factors. Currently this … Light-dependent Reactions: Chain of chemical reactions involving the conversion of light energy into chemical energy with the assistance of chlorophyll pigment. It can even conduce death of the plant. #gardeningbasics Pollinium: A cohered mass or body of pollen grains, characteristic of plants which belong to the orchid and milkweed families. The spindle fibers are attached to this region and move the chromosomes during cell division. 3) Are you an expert ? Enzyme: A type of complex protein that enhances the rate of a chemical reaction in living cells, without itself being used in the reaction. This is a list of all biology terms we have at this moment. Plant Anatomy: Study of the internal structure of the plant. Frond: Usually used for a fern leaf, however, occasionally it is also used to denote palm leaves. The allele masking the other allele is called dominant allele. Incipient Plasmolysis: The point at which the protoplasm just begins to stop exerting pressure on the cell wall, when the plant cell membrane shrinks after losing water. Each name consists of a genus name and a species name. Dedifferentiate: Pertaining to cells, dedifferentiate means becoming less specialized. Hybrid: Heterozygous progeny of two parents differing in one or more inheritable attributes. These may either be sensory or locomotory organelles. Am. Botany is the branch of biology concerned with the scientific study of plants. They enchant with their beauty, sweet fragrance, and vibrant colors. Endodermis: Single layer of specialized parenchyma cells surrounding the vascular tissues in the roots and stems. Chiasma: X-shaped structure formed by the attachment of two chromatids of homologous chromosomes to each other during meiosis. It requires oxygen for the process. Vascular Cambium: Meristem present in the form of narrow cylindrical sheath, that produces secondary xylem and phloem in the roots and stems. A dicot wood generally contains fibers. The upper of two bracts enclosing a grass flower, major contributors to chaff in harvested grain. Adventitious Roots: The roots that do not originate from primary roots are called adventitious. Sieve Plate: Sieve plates are the pores, in the cell walls of the plant, which facilitate the movement of liquid matter. It is the pressure developed by a solution that is separated from water by a selectively permeable membrane. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. used for soil fertilization. Spindle: Spindle is the underlying structure of microtubules which pulls away the chromosomes from the center of the cell, towards the poles during the process of nuclear division. Cortex: Generally parenchyma cells forming a tissue extending between the vascular tissue and epidermis. Cell Plate: During cell division, the plate formed at the midpoint between two sets of chromosomes, which is involved in the wall formation between two daughter cells. It is found within motile unicellular organisms. Plant Botany An introduction to plant anatomy, morphology and physiology. Annual Ring: The formation of wood in plants on an annual basis comprises two concentric layers of wood: springwood and summerwood. Biological Controls: Use of natural inhibitors or enemies to combat pests and other damage causing organisms. Protein Sequencing: This is a process that includes determining the amino acid sequences of its constituent peptides; and also finding out what compliance it follows and if it comprises any non-peptide molecules. Pistil: The female organ of a flower which bears ovules or seeds, consisting of a complete ovary, style, and stigma. Histones: Basic nuclear proteins forming complexes with DNA to form nucleosomes and then complexing further to form chromosomes. Casparian Strip: Band of cell wall material in the radial and transverse walls of the endodermis. Saprobe: Saprobes are heterotrophs which contribute to the various nutrient cycles by feeding on decomposing organic matter. Osmosis: The differential behavior of membrane for the purpose of diffusion of water and other solvents. are examples of some essential elements. Choose one to start playing: Take Quiz: Single Page HTML format. Glossary of Botanical Terms. 9 1325-1345, Glossary of botanical and medical terms, in Don G. W. A general system of gardening and botany. Softwood: Softwood refers to any of the various varieties of trees, usually coniferous, sporting narrow, needle like leaves. Exocarp: Outermost layer of the fruit wall. Basic Science Terms - Basic Science Terms * * DOING SCIENCE Science starts with a question. Most plants are self-sufficient, autotrophic organisms. Lignin: Type of polymer impregnating some cell walls, like those of wood. Retrovirus: Common type of plant virus whose genetic material is single-stranded RNA. Diploid: Cells comprising two sets of chromosomes in the nucleus. Botany traces back to the ancient world but received its modern impetus in the 16th century. Dicotyledon: Angiosperm class whose seeds feature two cotyledons. Inbreeding Depression: Condition in which individuals with common ancestry exhibit low fertility and poor performance. Vascular Bundle: Column of tissue comprising mostly phloem and xylem, which are usually enveloped by a bundle sheath. Adapted for Kentucky by Richard Durham, extension consumer horticulture specialist and master gardener state coordinator, University of Kentucky. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Webbing: According to telome theory of megaphyll origin, the lamina originated from parenchymatic cell production between the telomes. Chromosome: Threadlike bodies made up of DNA coiled tightly several times around proteins called histones. Botany teacher guide provides the tools, strategies and instructional materials to equip you for teaching this subject and preparing your students. Prochlorophytes: A class of procaryotes that possess both chlorophyll A and B, and is considered to be nearly associated to the antecedents of plastids in algae and plants. We know plants from time immemorial and they are a part of our day-to-day life, either directly or indirectly, but do we actually know what does a plant cell structure…. Zygosporangium: Large multinucleate sporangium produced by the fusion of two compatible hyphae in Zygomycete fungi. Primary Producer: Any green plant which has the ability to convert light energy or chemical energy into organic substance. Capillary Water: Water held in the tiny pores between soil particles by the adhesive force: surface tension. It regulates cellulose addition to the wall of the plant cells. Oogonium: It is the term given to the female sex organ of various algae and certain fungi. 86 no. It contains several types of cells such as tracheids, vessel elements, parenchyma, sclereids, fibers, etc. 2 • Basic Botany CHAPTER 1 Botany Terminology Anther—The pollen sac on a … Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. It is a leaf that has evolved from a branch system and is characterized by branching veins. Basic botany. Hypodermis: Cell layer following the epidermal layer and distinct from the cortical parenchyma cells in some plants. Its reaction center is P680. Sink: Sink is a botanical term used to refer to any tissue which receives the material that is transported by the phloem. Info Start: End: Prerequisites : Be a registered student at the Royal Criatura Academy: Level: none: Location: Izlude: Rewards: Experience, Items Progression Previous: Next: none: none: Contents . Protostele: The firm stele of most roots, that possesses a central core of xylem enclosed by bast. However, there are so many variations that are present even in plants, be it in their structure, size, color, or mode of nutrition. Petals: The colored segments of the corolla of the flower, which most often are involved in drawing in pollinating agents. Systematics of Amaryllidaceae based on cladistic analysis of plastid sequence data. Cutting: Vegetative plant parts used for asexual propagation. Heartwood: Darker colored non-living wood, whose cells have stopped conducting water. View source. Quest:Basic Medical Botany. Objectives. Basic botany 1. Messenger RNA: Single stranded RNA molecule carrying genetic information from the DNA template to the site of protein synthesis. Tracheid: The elongated cells in the xylem which facilitate the transportation of water and mineral salts within the plants are known as tracheids. Early Wood: Wood formed during the early part of the growing season, characterized by large, thin walled cells. Basic Medical Botany Inside the Criatura Academy's Dispensary. Not until the 18th century did we have the rules that we follow today of binomial nomenclature, i.e. Intermediate-day Plant: Plants characterized by two critical photo periods. Albuminous Seed: Seed containing large amounts of endosperm. Reproduction: It is the birth of a new organism born either by sexual or asexual means. Ectomycorrhiza: One type of mycorrhizal association, wherein the fungi do not invade the cell membrane, instead invade the root cortex cells. Whorled: Arrangement of three or more leaves, flowers or other plant structures positioned at a node. Nucleic Acid: Macromolecule composed of chains of nucleotides, carrying genetic information. Nitrogen Fixation: Process by which plants convert atmospheric nitrogen into compounds such as nitrate or ammonium, which they can readily use. Pollen Grains: They relate to microspores in seed plants, that comprise a male gametophyte. Plants are living … This is denoted by the term ‘2n’, and is a characteristic of the sporophyte generation. This entails to increase in the growth of algae and various other organisms. Substrate Specificity: In botany, the term substrate specificity is used to refer to the ability of a given enzyme to distinguish one substrate from other similar substrates. Bract: Leaf like structure situated at the base of the flower or inflorescence. Flashcards. Water-splitting (Photolysis): Phenomenon occurring in photosystem II of the process of photosynthesis, wherein water molecules split to release oxygen. Botany remains an incredibly interesting and useful subject today. Key: Tools used to identify unfamiliar plants. It mainly refers to the wall of a ripened ovary, but it has also been used in reference to fruit tissues that are derived from other parts of the flower. Anther: Part of the stamen containing sporogenous tissue which produces pollen. Chitin: Polymer composed of partly amino sugars, it is a semitransparent hard substance forming the outer covering or exoskeleton of crustaceans, arachnids and insects. Vernalization: Cold treatment required to initiate flowering in biennials. Prokaryotes: Organisms which do not possess true nucleus or membrane-bounded cell organelles such as eubacteria, cyanobacteria, and archaebacteria. Guard Cell: Pair of specialized cells surrounding the stomata. Anthocyanin: Water soluble pigment located in the cell sap, which varies from red to blue in color. It features large number of vessels in angiosperms and in gymnosperms, it features wide tracheids. Indusium: Umbrella shaped membranous tissue covering, located on the fern sorus. Hormone: Organic substances produced mostly in small amounts in one part of the organism and then transported to different parts of the organism, where it controls the growth and development of the organism. Test. Subdisciplines 1 • Plant molecular biology • Structures and functions of important biological molecules (proteins, nucleic acids) • Plant cell biology • Structures, functions, and life processes of plant cells 8. Absorption Spectrum: Graph indicating the relative abilities of pigments to absorb various wavelengths of light. Periderm: This term pertains to the bark, and comprises cork, cork cambium, and any enclosed tissues like secondary phloem. Germination: Commencement or resumption of growth of a spore or seed. Cloning Vector: Molecule of DNA that replicates and transfers DNA from one cell to another. Inflorescence: Discrete group of flowers attached to a common axis in a specific order. Would you like to write for us? This is termed as ‘quiescence’. It is present in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Mesophyll: Tissues (parenchyma or chlorenchyma) situated between the epidermal layers of the leaf. Gravitational Water: After rain, the water draining into the pores of the soil is called gravitational water. What Is Botany? Pedicel: A pedicel is one of the subordinate stems in a ramous inflorescence, bearing a single flower. Hypocotyl: Portion between the cotyledon and the radicle in a seedling or embryo. Day-neutral Plant: Plants independent of specific day lengths for commencement of flowering. Lichen: Fungi living in symbiotic union with algae. Spongy Mesophyll: Spongy mesophyll are irregularly shaped and distinctly spaced parenchyma cells present in plant leaves. The growth or germination of the seeds or plants are hampered if these environmental conditions are not satisfied. Mangroove. Aerobic Respiration: Type of respiration requiring free oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor. Basic Botany The Science of Understanding Plants Their Classification, Form and Function Learning objectives Basic plant parts -types of plant parts Vascular tissue ... – A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on - id: 3fe5e9-OWM4M Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA): Nucleic acid containing genetic instructions used for the proper functioning and development of all living organisms. Flower Terms •Complete - has all four parts (rose) •Incomplete-missing one or more parts •Perfect-has both male and female parts on same flower •Imperfect-either pistil or stamen is missing •Monoecious plants-have separate male and female flowers on the same plant (corn) •Dioecious plants-have separate male and female plants (holly) Vessel: Occur in xylem of some vascular plants and most of the angiosperms. Corm: A thick food storing, vertically oriented stem enveloped by some papery nonfunctional leaves. 1831, Categorical Glossary for the Flora of North America Project, Stuppy, W. Glossary of Seed and Fruit Morphological Terms, International Association for Plant Taxonomy,, Wikipedia articles incorporating citation to the NSRW, Wikipedia articles incorporating citation to the NSRW with an wstitle parameter, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, facing away from the substrate in any part of an erect plant, for example the upper surface of a more or less horizontal leaf (. Leaf Trace: Vascular bundles extending from the stem into the cortex and then protruding their way into the leaf. Epiphyte: Plants growing above the ground, that attach themselves to other plants without being a parasite. Monoecious: Plants which possess both unisexual male and female flowers or cones on the same plant. Hopefully, now you will feel comfortable describing and identifying the leaf shapes you encounter, and maybe you will feel inspired to venture deeper into botany on your own! Pericycle: It is the outermost cell layer of the stele in a plant, which often turns into a zone that is multi-layered. Recessive Trait: It is the trait that reflects in the phenotype only when the dominant gene is absent. Stop Codon: The term stop codon is used to refer to the set of three nucleotides which indicate the termination of information for the process of protein synthesis. Osmotic Potential: This is the minimum pressure required to prevent osmosis from taking place. Botany is a richly illustrated course designed to draw even the most skeptical high school student into the science of botany. Fermentation: Type of respiration involving the process of glycolysis, wherein lactic acid or ethyl alcohol are formed as an end product. Molecular Pump: Protein embedded in the membrane that forces molecules to pass from one side to another with the help of energy. Coenzymes: Molecules providing transfer site for biochemical reactions catalyzed by enzymes. It is formed when DNA from at least two organisms is taken. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. Megagametophyte: Female gametophyte produced by the megaspores of heterozygous plants. Isogamy: Sexual reproduction taking place between gametes that are similar in size. Substrate Level Phosphorylation: It is the formation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from adenosine diphosphate (ADP) by transferring a phosphate group from a substrate molecule. Proembryo: This term relates to the cells which are forced into the endosperm and afterwards become the embryo, in seed bearing plant’s embryos. Simple Leaf: A simple leaf is a single leaf blade sporting a bud at the base of the leaf-stem. Venter: Egg’s site in the large basal region of the archegonium. Dark Reactions: Stage of photosynthesis which is light independent wherein carbohydrates are synthesized from carbon dioxide. Tip Layering: Tip layering is a plant propagation method wherein only the stem tip is buried in order to facilitate the growth of a new plant. Traditionally, botanists studied all organisms that were not generally regarded as animal. These reactions are independent of light, and take place in the stroma of chloroplasts. They derive their nutrients and water from air, dust, rain, etc. papillose or papillate. Selfing: Selfing is a process wherein a plant’s stigma is pollinated with pollen either from the same plant, or from a plant of identical genetic constitution. This means if young tissues become deficient in these elements they develop a deficiency, even though this element is present in the older tissues. These cookies do not store any personal information. Megaspore: Spore that advance into female gametophyte. Cell Biology: Branch of biology involving the study of cells, their structure, formation, components and functions. Lipid: Hydrophobic and water insoluble compounds, such as waxes, fats, oils, etc. Hardwood: The wood of both dicot trees and shrubs are termed as hardwood. Nut: A dry fruit consisting of only one seed and a thick pericarp. Water Potential: Amount of water that can be absorbed or released by a substance with respective to another substance is termed as water potential. Allopatric Speciation: Speciation emerging as the result of physical separation of two or more populations of one species, such that interbreeding is not possible. Transposition: A form of chromosomal mutation wherein a chromosomal segment is transferred to a new position on the same or some other chromosome. They often contain chlorophyll, which is used for photosynthesis. Basic Botany differs from the average botany text book in that the author constantly points out and stresses the underlying unity of the different aspects of botany with which he deals. Protoplast Fusion: A method by which two energids are coalesced to create hybrid cells that can develop into mature hybrid organisms; normally performed on plants. A Dictionary of Botanical Terms John Stevens Henslow (1796 – 1861) was a botanist and geologist. Axil: Angle formed at the point of attachment between the petiole of a leaf and the upper part of the plant. It contains most of the cell’s genetic material, thus is involved with inheritance, ribosome synthesis and metabolism control. We know that botany is defined as the scientific study of plants. All leaflets are attached to the rachis. Botany - Botany - Areas of study: For convenience, but not on any mutually exclusive basis, several major areas or approaches are recognized commonly as disciplines of botany. It provides support or performs the absorption function in them. Sieve Cell: Sieve cells are conducting cells of the secondary phloem, which have a narrow diameter and are more elongated in shape as compared to the sieve tube members. Video Duration: 2:56. Pericarp: It relates to the matured and diversely altered walls of a plant ovary. Plants are of various types, ranging from edible with medicinal properties, to downright poisonous. Introduction to botany terms This blog is an introduction to the basics of botany, so you can tell your corolla from your sepal, and your stem from your root. Key concepts are reinforc Plant Cell Structure and Parts Explained With a Labeled Diagram, Fascinating Facts About Stem Cell Research. This website uses cookies to improve your experience. Spermatophytes: Spermatophytes are the plants that reproduce by means of seeds, instead of spores. #herbgardening 302585668709809068 Runner: Slender creeping stem that contains long internodes, growing horizontally along the surface of the ground.