Here in his vast cavern, Aeolus, their king, keeps under his sway and with prison bonds curbs the struggling winds and the roaring gales. We use cookies for essential site functions and for social media integration. What land is so barbaric as to allow. but the unexpected event confused their minds. The gates of war, grim with iron and close-fitting bars, shall be closed; within, impious Rage, sitting on savage arms, his hands fast bound behind with a hundred brazen knots, shall roar in the ghastliness of blood-stained lips.”. how to give the order to tighten or slacken the reins. some choosing the site for a house, and marking a furrow: they make magistrates and laws, and a sacred senate: here some are digging a harbour: others lay down, the deep foundations of a theatre, and carve huge columns. These two-halves are commonly regarded as reflecting Virgil's ambition to rival Homer by treating both the Odyssey ' s wandering theme and the Iliad ' s warfare themes. by Richard Stanyhurst. From ancient Troy, if perchance the name of Troy has come to your hears, sailing over distant seas, the storm at its own caprice drove us to the Libyan coast. But we, your offspring, to whom you grant the heights of heaven, have lost our ships – O shame unutterable! by lot, and not to him. Do you now dare, winds, without command of mine, to mingle earth and sky, and raise confusion thus? See, Priam! In this grove first did a strange sight appear to him and allay his fears; here first did Aeneas dare to hope for safety and put surer trust in his shattered fortunes. and transfer his throne from its site at Lavinium. and the Ethiopian ranks and black Memnon’s armour. and kept far away from the shores of Italy. I am that Aeneas, the virtuous, who carries my household gods. to you? For no more than a single night imitate his looks by art. to unjust Pallas’s temple carrying the sacred robe. Then, Dido, spoke briefly, with lowered eyes: ‘Trojans, free your hearts of fear: dispel your cares. He owns the wild rocks, home to you. there are tears for events, and mortal things touch the heart. May the gods, if any divine powers have regard for the good, if there is any justice anywhere – may the gods and the consciousness of right bring you worthy rewards! Penthesilea in fury leads the crescent-shielded ranks of Amazons and blazes amid her thousands; a golden belt she binds below her naked breast, and, as a warrior queen, dares battle, a maid clashing with men. See, those twelve swans in exultant line, that an eagle. Augustus, a Julius, his name descended from the great Iulus. in flowers, and the breath of its sweet shade. But the palace within is laid out with the splendour of princely pomp, and amid the halls they prepare a banquet. on the ground, and his spear reversed furrowing the dust. Internet Archive BookReader Virgil's Æneid, books I-VI; the original text with a literal interlinear translation You may accept or manage cookie usage at any time. Myself unknown and destitute, I wander over the Libyan wastes, driven from Europe and Asia.” His further complaint Venus suffered not, but in the midst of his lament broke in thus: [387] “Whoever you are, not hateful, I think, to the powers of heaven do you draw the breath of life, since you have reached the Tyrian city. Let Bacchus, the joy-bringer, and kind Juno be present, and you, O Phoenicians, make this gathering festive.’. Shaken by all this, Dido prepared her flight and her friends. Then Aeneas truly heaves a deep sigh, from the depths of his heart. Virgil. When they’d entered, and freedom to speak in person. VIRGIL was a Latin poet who flourished in Rome in the C1st B.C. and leafy shadows: accompanied only by Achetes. and your voice is more than human: oh, a goddess for certain! How your brother Aeneas is tossed on the sea about all coasts by bitter Juno’s hate is known to you, and often have you grieved in our grief. Then he bids her take speedy flight and leave her country, and to aid her journey brought to light treasures long hidden underground, a mass of gold and silver known to none. [418] Meanwhile they sped on the road where the pathway points. shows land between the waves: the surge rages with sand. [631] Thus she speaks, and at once leads Aeneas into the royal house; at once proclaims a sacrifice at the temples of the gods. Then, fenced with weapons, and resting on a high throne. as he views the spoils, the chariot, the very body of his friend. So Venus: and so Venus’s son began in answer: ‘I’ve not seen or heard any of your sisters, O Virgin –, or how should I name you? and fill themselves with rich venison and old wine. But who, pray, are you, or from what coasts come, or whither hold you your coarse?” As she questioned thus he replied, sighing and drawing every word deep from his breast. Download for offline reading, highlight, bookmark or take notes while you read The Aeneid: Interlinear Translation, Books 1-6. wearing a quiver, and the hide of a dappled lynx, or shouting, hot on the track of a slavering boar?’. There is a place there in a deep inlet: an island forms a harbour, with the barrier of its bulk, on which every wave from the deep. or the summit of Eryx, and Acestes for king. Aeneas climbs a crag meanwhile, and searches the whole prospect, far and wide over the sea, looking if he can see anything. He flies through the air. [335] Then said Venus: “Nay, I claim not such worship. my greatest concern, prepares to go to the Sidonian city. Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans. Queen Dido, of loveliest form, reached the temple. then that of Amycus, together with Lycus’s cruel fate. But Venus was planning new wiles and stratagems, in her heart: how Cupid, altered in looks, might arrive, in place of sweet Ascanius, and arouse the passionate queen, by his gifts, and entwine the fire in her bones: truly she fears. I am the loyal Aeneas, who carry with me in my fleet my household gods, snatched from the foe; my fame is known to the heavens above. and a dark grove overhangs the water, with leafy shade: under the headland opposite is a cave, curtained with rock. This work may be freely reproduced, stored and transmitted, electronically or otherwise, for any non-commercial purpose. ), betrayed, because of one person’s anger. Then he addressed the queen, suddenly, surprising them all. and what delay makes the slow nights linger. A storm drove us at whim to Libya’s shores. Father, what thought has changed. O Dido, it is not in our power, nor those of our Trojan race. [657] But the Cytherean revolves in her breast new wiles, new schemes; how Cupid, changed in face and form, may come in the stead of sweet Ascanius, and by his gifts kindle the queen to madness and send the flame into her very marrow. Then Romulus, proud in the tawny hide of the she-wolf, his nurse, shall take up the line, and found the walls of Mars and call the people Romans after his own name. That promise, indeed, was my comfort for Troy’s fall and sad overthrow, when I weighed fate against the fates opposed. while amazed he hangs there, rapt, with fixed gaze. With twice ten ships I embarked on the Phrygian sea, following the fates declared, my goddess-mother pointing me the way; scarcely do seven remain, shattered by waves and wind. And thus is piety honoured? looked down on the sea with its flying sails, and the broad lands. But Venus veiled them with a dark mist as they walked. Vesper would have shut day away in the closed heavens. and proclaims, as well, offerings at the god’s temples. You drew near to Scylla’s fury and her deep-echoing crags; you have known, too, the rocks of the Cyclopes; recall your courage and banish sad fear. men’s weapons, planking, Trojan treasure in the waves. Dido wields the sceptre – Dido, who, fleeing from her brother, came from the city of Tyre. Muse, tell me the cause: how was she offended in her divinity. and stretch their brine-caked bodies on the shore. complete thirty great circles of the turning months. and those of brave Gyus, and brave Cloanthus. and you’ll raise great-hearted Aeneas high, to the starry sky: No thought has changed my mind. Achates was first to speak, saying to Aeneas: ‘Son of the goddess. the hollow mountain on the side: and the winds, formed ranks. Are you truly that Aeneas whom kindly Venus bore. There in a deep inlet lies a spot, where an island forms a harbour with the barrier of its side, on which every wave from the main is broken, then parts into receding ripples. She herself through the sky goes her way to Paphos, and joyfully revisits her abode, where the temple and its hundred altars steam with Sabaean incense and are fragrant with garlands ever fresh. Grant us to beach our storm-battered fleet, to fashion planks in the forests and trim oars, so that, if we are granted to find king and comrades and steer our course to Italy, Italy and Latium we may gladly seek; but if our salvation is cut off, if you, noble father of the Trojan people, are the prey of the Libyan gulf, and a nation’s hope no longer lives in Iulus, that we at least may seek the straits of Sicily, whence we came hither, and the homes there ready, and Acestes for our king.” So spoke Ilioneus, and all the sons of Dardanus loudly assent . parts the vast quicksand, tempers the flood. they are silent, and stand there listening attentively: he sways their passions with his words and soothes their hearts: so all the uproar of the ocean died, as soon as their father, gazing over the water, carried through the clear sky, wheeled. that would one day overthrow the Tyrian stronghold: that from them a people would come, wide-ruling. Her husband was Sychaeus, richest in gold of the Phoenicians, and fondly loved by unhappy Dido; to him her father had given the maiden, yoking her to him in the first bridal auspices. The father of men and gods, smiled at her with that look. and appearance of a virgin, and a virgin’s weapons. When hunger was banished by the feast and the board was cleared, in long discourse they yearn for their lost comrades, between hope and fear uncertain whether to deem them still alive, or bearing the final doom and hearing no more when called. [142] Thus he speaks, and swifter than his word he clams the swollen seas, puts to flight the gathered clouds, and brings back the sun. And would that your king were here, driven by the same wind – Aeneas himself! These are some of the hardest lines of the poem! and quickly has flames among the kindling. man or beast, and bring back the details to his friends. [402] She spoke, and as she turned away, her roseate neck flashed bright. here, no anchor, with its hooked flukes, fastens them. killed the unwary Sychaeus, secretly, with a knife, impiously. It’s known to you how Aeneas, your brother, is driven. A revised version of this translation is available new from (click on image right for details). will make the laws: the gates of War, grim with iron, and narrowed by bars, will be closed: inside impious Rage will roar. where men and beasts came from, and rain and fire. The king, impiously before the altars and blinded by lust for gold, strikes down Sychaeus unawares by stealthy blow, without a thought for his sister’s love; and for long he hid the deed, and by many a pretence cunningly cheated the lovesick bride with empty hope. 2. mourning humbly, and beating their breasts with their hands. [723] When first there came a lull in the feasting, and the boards were cleared, they set down great bowls and crown the wine. Whether your choice be great Hesperia and the fields of Saturn, or the lands of Eryx and Acestes for your king, I will send you hence guarded by an escort, and aid you with my wealth. While, waiting for the queen, in the vast temple, he looks. the brimming cup, drenching himself in its golden fullness, then other princes drank. Is this how you restore our rule? “Nay, more,” she cries, “tell us, my guest, from the first beginning the treachery of the Greeks, the sad fate of your people, and your own wanderings; for already a seventh summer bears you a wanderer over every land and sea.”, Theoi Project © Copyright 2000 - 2017 Aaron J. Atsma, New Zealand. Consider the story as Virgil sets it up from the get-go (1.12–22, in Fred’s translation. and first he shoots the leaders themselves, their heads. stir it all from its furthest deeps, and roll vast waves to shore: follows a cry of men and a creaking of cables. Then the halls were silent. his friend Iloneus by the right hand, Serestus with the left. this custom, that we’re denied the hospitality of the sands? Hurry, fly now, and say this to your king: control of the ocean, and the fierce trident, were given to me. She spoke: ‘Jupiter, since they say you’re the one who creates, the laws of hospitality, let this be a happy day. At the first lull in the feasting, the tables were cleared. So come, young lords, and enter our palace. from the ruins of Troy, a figured robe stiff with gold. For but a single night, feign by craft his form and, boy that you are, don the boy’s familiar face, so that when, in the fullness of her joy, amid the royal feast and the flowing wine, Dido takes you to her bosom, embraces you and imprints sweet kisses, you may breathe into her a hidden fire and beguile her with your poison.” Love obeys his dear mother’s words, lays by his wings, and walks joyously with the step of Iulus. She spoke and poured an offering of wine onto the table. or Capys, or Caicus’s arms blazoned on a high stern. Antenor could escape through the thick of the Greek army, and safely enter the Illyrian gulfs, and deep into the realms. He sang of the wandering moon and the sun’s labours. . The oars snap, then the prow swings round and gives the broadside to the waves; down in a heap comes a sheer mountain of water. The helmsman is dashed out and hurled head foremost, but the ship is thrice on the same spot whirled round and round by the wave and engulfed in the sea’s devouring eddy. Then from his high couch our forefather Aeneas began: ‘O queen, you command me to renew unspeakable grief, how the Greeks destroyed the riches of Troy, and … to Trojan Anchises, by the waters of Phrygian Simois? But we, your race, to whom you permit the heights of heaven. in front of the altars, indifferent to his sister’s affections. the she-wolf’s tawny pelt, and found the walls of Mars. with empty hopes, and many evil pretences. her with passion, so that no divine will can rescue her. [incomplete verse] when, rising with sudden swell, stormy Orion bore us on hidden shoals and with fierce blasts scattered us afar amid pathless rocks and waves of overwhelming surge; hither to your shores have we few drifted. The daughter of Saturn, fearful of this and mindful of the old war which erstwhile she had fought at Troy for her beloved Argos – not yet, too, had the cause of her wrath and her bitter sorrows faded from her mind: deep in her heart remain the judgment of Paris and the outrage to her slighted beauty, her hatred of the race and the honours paid to ravished Ganymede – inflamed hereby yet more, she tossed on the wide main the Trojan remnant, left by the Greeks and pitiless Achilles, and kept them far from Latium; and many a year they wandered, driven by the fates o’er all the seas. What thought, father, ahs turned you? she took her seat, at the goddess’s doorway, under the central vault. No hawsers moor the weary ships. rushed out by the door he’d made, and whirled across the earth. Since your looks are not mortal. now that in which Abas sailed, and old Aletes’s: their timbers sprung in their sides, all the ships. The south wind catches three, and whirls them onto hidden rocks. There is no ship in sight; he descries three stags straying on the shore; whole herds follow behind these and in long line graze down the valley. cannot pacify her feelings, and catches fire with gazing. and, as a goddess, spread a thick covering of cloud around them. Aeneas marvels at the massive buildings, mere huts once; marvels at the gates, the din and paved high-roads. You will see Lavinium’s city and its promised walls; and great-souled Aeneas you will raise on high to the starry heaven. over the waves among uninhabitable rocks: What race of men is this? unable to turn the Teucrian king away from Italy! ‘O goddess, if I were to start my tale at the very beginning. are carried overseas: a woman leads the enterprise. from the sharp reef: Neptune himself raises them with his trident. One, which bore the Lycians and loyal Orontes, before the eyes of Aeneas a mighty toppling wave strikes astern. in wickedness beyond all others, held the kingdom of Tyre. Nay, I will send trusty scouts along the coast and bid them traverse the ends of Libya, if perchance he strays shipwrecked in forest or in town.”, [579] Stirred in spirit by these words, brave Achates and father Aeneas had long burned to break through the cloud. Achates, what region of earth not full of our hardships? Is this the way you restore us to empire? and her heart unused to love, with living passion. What happy ages bore you! She was giving out laws and statutes to the people, and sharing. the fleet and our friends have been restored to us. Or one of the race of Nymphs? O you who’ve endured worse, the god will grant an end to this too. by every mischance, on land and sea, and lacking everything. What glorious parents gave birth to so noble a child? Summoned by his dear father, the royal child. and brave Cloanthus, approaching, among a large crowd, with others of the Trojans whom the black storm-clouds. Trojan fodder, or drink from the river Xanthus. “Happy they whose walls already rise!” cries Aeneas, lifting his eyes towards the city roofs. with a beating of mighty wings and quickly lands on Libyan shore. over the nations, if only the fates allowed. He calls the East and West winds to him, and then says: ‘Does confidence in your birth fill you so? inside it, fresh water, and seats of natural stone, the home of Nymphs. keeps the writhing winds, and the roaring tempests. will wage a mighty war in Italy, destroy proud peoples. others place cauldrons on the beach, and feed them with flames. The Aeneid can be divided into halves based on the disparate subject matter of Books 1–6 (Aeneas's journey to Latium in Italy) and Books 7–12 (the war in Latium). CORE VOCABULARY. Great king, what end to their efforts will you give? lose our ships (shameful! with branching antlers, held high, then the mass, with his shafts. Him will I lull to sleep, and on the heights of Cythera or Idalium will hide in my sacred shrine, so that he may by no means learn my wiles or come between to thwart them. strikes square on the sail, and lifts the seas to heaven: the oars break: then the prow swings round and offers. at the summit of heaven, and fixed his eyes on the Libyan kingdom. and a cloak fringed with yellow acanthus, worn by Helen of Argos, brought from Mycenae. would open to the Trojans, as guests, and Dido, unaware of fate, would not keep them from her territory. Now our forefather Aeneas and the youth of Troy. I sing of arms and the man, he who, exiled by fate, first came from the coast of Troy to Italy, and to. Look at those twelve swans in exultant line, which Jove’s bird, swooping from the expanse of heaven, was harrying in the open air; now in long array they seem either to be settling in their places or already to be gazing down on the places where others have settled. ... Aeneid 1.194-197 translation - Duration: 2:59. gave you the power to quell, and raise, the waves with the winds. What violence drives you to savage shores? It's too bad that this beautiful and engaging translation does not sit on the bookstore shelves today at a reasonable price alongside of those of Fitzgerald and Mandelbaum. under whose summits the whole sea is calm, far and wide: then, above that, is a scene of glittering woods. Not far away, through his tears, he recognises Rhesus’s. So he speaks, and swifter than his speech, he calms the swollen sea. Long would be the tale of wrong, long its winding course – but the main heads of the story I will trace. Not far away he discerns with tears the snowy-canvassed tents of Rhesus, which, betrayed in their first sleep, the blood-stained son of Tydeus laid waste with many a death, and turned the fiery steeds away to the camp, before they could taste Trojan fodder or drink of Xanthus. At once he does his bidding, and, God willing it, the Phoenicians lay aside their savage thoughts; above all, the queen receives a gentle mind and gracious purpose toward the Teucrians. Then indeed from the bottom of his heart he heaves a deep groan, as the spoils, as the chariot, as the very corpse of his friend meet his gaze, and Priam outstretching weaponless hands. 1.21 gigawatts off. Cambridge, MA. So she speaks, and leads Aeneas into the royal house. and sated the deceived father’s great love, seeks out the queen. Juno stirs up in book 1 drives the Trojans off course not just in space but in time too. He recognised. in my ship with me, having snatched them from the enemy. There was a grove in the centre of the city, delightful, with shade, where the wave and storm-tossed Phoenicians, first uncovered the head of a fierce horse, that regal Juno. and mighty in power, will build the walls of Alba Longa. While rivers run to ocean, while on the mountains shadows move over slopes, while heaven feeds the stars, ever shall your honour, your name, and your praises abide, whatever be the lands that summon me!” So saying, he grasps his dear Ilioneus with the right hand, and with the left Serestus; then others, brave Gyas and brave Cloanthus. She herself soars high in the air, to Paphos, and returns to her home, with delight, where her temple and its hundred altars. The Tyrians redoubled their applause, the Trojans too. We have not come to spoil with the sword your Libyan homes or to drive stolen booty to the shore. I resign my purpose, baffled, and fail to turn from Italy the Teucrian king! He conceals the boats in over-hanging woods, under an arching cliff, enclosed by trees. [441] Amid the city was a grove, luxuriant in shade, the spot where the first Phoenicians, tossed by waves and whirlwind, dug up the token which queenly Juno had pointed out, a head of the spirited horse; for thus was the race to be famous in war and rich in substance through the ages. Quick-Find a Translation. Those who had fierce hatred of the tyrant or bitter fear, gathered together: they seized some ships that by chance, were ready, and loaded the gold: greedy Pygmalion’s riches. What race of men is this? Spiteful Juno, who now in her fear troubles sea and earth and sky, shall change to better counsels and with me cherish the Romans, lords of the world, and the nation of the toga. She sends no less than twenty bulls to his friends, on the shore, and a hundred of her largest pigs with. And she cried first: ‘Hello, you young men, tell me. Hither lay our course . Me, too, has a like fortune driven through many toils, and willed that in this land I should at last find rest. on the shore: whole herds of deer follow at their back. the bravery, the men, or so great a blaze of warfare. by these words, had been burning to break free of the mist. Can heavenly spirits cherish resentment so dire? Elsewhere Troilus, his armour flung away in flight – unhappy boy, and ill-matched in conflict with Achilles – is carried along by his horses and, fallen backward, clings to the empty car, still clasping the reins; his neck and hair are dragged on the ground, and the dust is scored by his reversed spear. deep in conversation, they discuss their missing friends. with them, in rapid flight, and sweep them through the air. Neptune, meanwhile, greatly troubled, saw that the sea, was churned with vast murmur, and the storm was loose. if they then see a man of great virtue, and weighty service. Please refer to our Privacy Policy. There’s no ship in sight: he sees three stags wandering. Aeneid Book 1 translation Vergil Latin APLAT AP Advanced Placement Wildside Press LLC, Jan 1, 1917 - Poetry - 324 pages. your mind? For he saw how, as they fought round Pergamus, here the Greeks were in rout, the Trojan youth hard on their heels; there fled the Phrygians, plumed Achilles in his chariot pressing them close. the winds, as if in armed array, rush forth where passage is given, and blow in storm blasts across the world. I ask your help, and humbly call on your divine will. ‘The Judgement of Paris’ - Giorgio Ghisi (Italy, 1520-1582), LACMA Collections. halls, summoned to recline on the embroidered couches. But Venus pours gentle sleep over Ascanius’s limbs. It is Italy I seek, my father’s land, and a race sprung from Jupiter most high. ‘O fortunate those whose walls already rise!’. and glides on weightless wheels, over the tops of the waves. the grain over the flames, and grind it on stone. Whether you opt for mighty Hesperia, and Saturn’s fields. and explore the place, to find what shores he has reached, on the wind, who owns them (since he sees desert). Madness came between them. Instantly Aeneas groans, his limbs slack with cold: stretching his two hands towards the heavens, he cries out in this voice: ‘Oh, three, four times fortunate, were those who chanced to die in front of their father’s eyes, under Troy’s high walls! the unreliability of this house, and the duplicitous Tyrians: unyielding Juno angers her, and her worries increase with nightfall. Or Phoebus’s sister? Here, nonetheless, he sited the city of Padua, and homes, for Teucrians, and gave the people a name, and hung up. Aeneid (Dryden translation) Publius Vergilius Maro. Arma virumque canō, Trōiae quī prīmus ab ōrīs Ītaliam, fātō profugus, Lāvīniaque vēnit lītora, multum ille et terrīs iactātus et altō then at his great misfortunes, and she spoke, saying: ‘Son of a goddess, what fate pursues you through all. indeed, we Phoenicians don’t possess unfeeling hearts. bristling backs, a hundred fat lambs with the ewes, and joyful gifts of wine, but the interior of the palace, is laid out with royal luxury, and they prepare, a feast in the centre of the palace: covers worked, skilfully in princely purple, massive silverware, on the tables, and her forefathers’ heroic deeds, engraved in gold, a long series of exploits traced. A city built by Helenus in Epirus, 3.349. Then thus he addresses the queen, and, unforeseen by all, suddenly speaks: “I, whom you seek, am here before you, Aeneas of Troy, snatched from the Libyan waves. He commands him to bring gifts too, snatched. Or is it your wish to settle with me on even terms within these realms? the sons of Atreus, of Priam, and Achilles angered with both. at the robe, and the cloak embroidered with yellow acanthus. But Venus pours over the limbs of Ascanius the dew of gentle repose and, fondling him in her bosom, uplifts him with divine power to Idalia’s high groves, where soft marjoram enwraps him in flowers and the breath of its sweet shade. now about the armour that Memnon, son of the Dawn. for further complaint but broke in on his lament like this: ‘Whoever you are I don’t think you draw the breath of life. There’s a place called Hesperia by the Greeks. – and, to appease one angry foe, are betrayed and kept far from Italian shores. And soon they climbed the hill that looms high over the city. (rocks the Italians call the Altars, in mid-ocean, a vast reef on the surface of the sea) three the east wind drives. He recognised himself as well, fighting the Greek princes. unhappy boy, unequally matched in his battle with Achilles. and the coasts, and the people far and wide, and paused. windings: but I’ll trace the main chapters of the story. unless my parents taught me false prophecies, in vain. [1] Arms and the man I sing, who first from the coasts of Troy, exiled by fate, came to Italy and Lavine shores; much buffeted on sea and land by violence from above, through cruel Juno’s unforgiving wrath, and much enduring in war also, till he should build a city and bring his gods to Latium; whence came the Latin race, the lords of Alba, and the lofty walls of Rome. She herself hurled Jupiter’s swift fire from the clouds. . a new city, and curb proud tribes with your justice. Only one is missing, whom we saw plunged in the waves: all else is in accord with your mother’s words.’, ‘Dido and Aeneas’ - Nicolas Verkolye (The Netherlands, 1673–1746), Getty Open Content Program, He’d scarcely spoken when the mist surrounding them. and fiery torches fly (frenzy supplying weapons). May Bacchus, giver of joy, be near, and bounteous Juno; and do you, Tyrians, grace the gathering with friendly spirit!” She spoke, and on the board offered a libation of wine, and, after the libation, was first to touch the goblet with her lips; then with a challenge gave it to Bitias.